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PAINTING 100.00%

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The art of painting by burning in the colours. (See PAINTING.)
A Greek painter, probably of Thebes, about 360 B.C. He was celebrated as an artist who could paint with equal rapidity and excellence, and was regarded as rivalling the best painters of his day. A famous painting of his was the Rape of Proserpine. (Pliny, N. H. xxxv 108.]
PAUSIAS 48.84%
A Greek painter, a pupil of Pamphilus and a follower of the Sicyonian school. He lived about 360 B.C. at Sicyon, and invented the art of painting vaulted ceilings, and also of foreshortening; he brought encaustic painting to perfection. He painted chiefly children and flowers. One of his most famous pictures was the Flower Girl (Stephanoplocus), representing the flower-girl Glycera, of whom he was enamoured in his youth [Pliny, N. H., xxxv 123-127].

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A Greek painter of Samos, the inventor of scene-painting. (See PAINTING.)
APELLES 41.54%
The greatest painter of antiquity, probably born at Colophon or in the Island of Cos, who lived in the latter half of the 4th century B.C. After studying at Ephesus, and receiving theoretical instruction in his art from Pamphilus at Sicyon, he worked in different parts of the Greek world, but especially in Macedonia, at the court of Philip and that of Alexander, who would let no other artist paint him. While doing ready justice to the merits of contemporaries, especially Protogenes, he could not but recognise that no one surpassed himself in grace and balanced harmony. These qualities, together with his wonderful skill in drawing and his perfect and refined mastery of colouring (however simple his means), made his works the most perfect productions of Greek painting. Among the foremost were the Alexander with lightning in his hand, painted for the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, in which the fingers appeared to stand out of the picture, and the thunderbolt to project from the panel; and the Aphrodite Anadyomene (- rising), painted for the temple of Asclepius at Cos, which Augustus brought to Rome and set up in the temple of Caesar, and which, when the lower part was damaged, no painter would attempt to restore. We owe to Lucian a description of an allegorical picture of Slander by this painter. [Pliny, H. N., 35. 79-97.]
ZEUXIS 36.33%
A celebrated Greek painter of the Ionic school, a contemporary of Parrhasius; he was a native of Heraclea in South Italy, and lived till about 400 B.C. at different places in Greece, at last, as it appears, settling in Ephesus. According to the accounts of his works which have been preserved, in contrast to the great mural painter, Polygnotus, he specially devoted himself to painting on panels. He endeavoured above all things to make his subjects attractive by investing them with the charm of novelty and grace. He also has the merit of having further improved the distribution of light and shade, introduced by his elder comtemporaries. Specially celebrated was his picture of Helen, painted for the temple of Hera on the Lacinian promontory [Cicero, De Invent. ii 1 Section 1]. He aimed at the highest degree of illusion. As is well known, he is said to have painted grapes so naturally that the birds flew to peck at them [Pliny, N. H. xxxv 61-66]. (Cp. PARRHASIUS.)
ART 35.46%

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A Greek painter, native of Sicyon, who flourished about 400 B.C. He was the founder of the Sicyonian school of painting, which laid great emphasis on professional knowledge. [Pliny, N.H. xxxv 75.]
A famous Greek painter of Ephesus, who with Zeuxis was the chief representative of the Ionic school. He lived about 400 B.C. at Athens, where he seems to have received the citizenship. According to the accounts of ancient writers, he first introduced into painting the theory of human proportions, gave to the face delicate shades of expression, and was a master in the careful drawing of contours [Pliny, N. H. xxxv 67, 68]. His skill in indicating varieties of psychological expression could be appreciated in the picture representing the Athenian State or Demos, in which, according to ancient authors, he distinctly pourtrayed all the conflicting qualities of the Athenian national character [ib. 69] Another of his pictures represented two boys, one of whom seemed to personify the pertness, and the other the simplicity, of boyhood [ib. 70]. His inclination to represent excited states of mind is attested by the choice of subjects like the feigned madness of Odysseus [Plutarch, De Audiend. Poet, 3], and the anguish of Philoctetes in Lemnos [Anthol. Gr. ii 348, 5]. His supposed contest with Zeuxis is well known. The grapes painted by Zeuxis deceived the birds, which flew to peck at them; while the curtain painted by Parrhasius deceived Zeuxis himself [Pliny, ib. 65).
A celebrated Greek painter of Caunus in Caria, who lived for the most part at Rhodes, in the time of Alexander the Great and his first successors. He died 300 B.C. His poverty seems to have prevented him from attending the school of any of the celebrated masters of his age, for no one is named as his instructor. He long remained poor until the unselfish admiration which his contemporary and brother painter Apelles showed for his works raised him in riper years to great celebrity. His works, owing to the excessive care he bestowed on them, were few in number; but their perfect execution led to their being ranked by the unanimous voice of antiquity among the highest productions of art. His most celebrated works were a Resting Satyr, and also a painting representing the Rhodian hero Ialysus. On the latter he spent seven or, according to others, as many as eleven years. To insure its permanence he covered it with four distinct coats of paint, so that when the upper coating perished the lower might takes its place [Pliny, N.H., xxxv 101-105].
MASKS 22.92%
An indispensable part of the equipment of a Greek actor. Their use, like the drama itself, goes back to the mummery at the festivals of Dionysus, in which the face was painted with lees of wine or with vermilion, or covered with masks made ofleaves or the bark of trees. The development of the drama led to the invention of artistic masks of painted linen which concealed not only the face, but the whole head, a device ascribed to Aeschylus. The opening for the eyes was not larger than the pupil of the actor concealed under the mask; similarly, in the masks of tragedy (figs. 1-4), the hole for the mouth was only a little larger than sufficed to let the sound pass through; while the masks of comedy (figs. 6-10) had lips that were distorted far apart, and in the form of a round hole, so as to make the voice louder. By moulding and painting them in different ways, and variously arranging the hair of the head and the beard, the masks were made to represent many different types of character, men and women of various ages, slaves, etc; the expression also was made to agree with the dominant nature of the parts [Pollux, iv 133-164]. Among the Romans, masks were at first only used at the Atellanoe (q.v.) , popular farces acted by amateurs; they were not introduced on the stage till the 2nd century B.C., and were not generally employed before the time of the celebrated actor Roscius, an older contemporary of Cicero. After that time, the mimes seem to have been the only actors without masks.
ALBUM 22.52%

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The Latin word for a board chalked or painted white, on which matters of public interest were notified in black writing. In this way were published the yearly records of the pontifex (see ANNALES), the edicts of praetors (q.v.), the roll of senators, the lists of jurors, etc.
Philostratus the younger, son of the daughter of (1), of Lemnos. He lived chiefly at Athens, and died at Lemnos, 264 A.D. Following his grandfather's lead, he devoted himself to the rhetorical description of paintings; but fell considerably behind his model both in invention and descriptive power, as is proved by the sixteen extant Imagines, the first book of a larger collection.
STOICS 20.66%

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The adherents of a school of philosophy (Stoicism), founded by Zeno of Citium. about 310 A.D. They derived their name from the Painted Stoa (see STOA) in Athens, in which Zeno lectured. For further details, see PHILOSOPHY.
NICIAS 20.41%
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